Accounting policies are the specific policies and procedures used by a company to prepare its financial statements. These include the methods, measurement systems and procedures for presentation and disclosures. Accounting policies vary from accounting principles in that the principles are the rules and the policies are a company’s way of adhering to the rules. There is no single list of accounting policies, which may be applicable to all enterprises and in all situations. The choice of a policy appropriate to the specific circumstances depends on the nature of the enterprise. Generally following are the areas where more than one accounting policy prevails and accountants have to use their own judgement:
- Method of depreciation
- Valuation of inventory
- Treatment of goodwill
- Valuation of investment
- Valuation of investment
There are many more areas where more than one shares, the company may use alternative methods of valuation like LIFO, FIFO weighted average. Same is the case with inventories. The particular method chosen by the enterprise for valuation of shares, in this case, will be called accounting policy. Different methods will lead to the different values.
Selection of an Accounting Policy
Choice of accounting policy is an important policy decision which affects the performance as well as the financial performance of the financial position of the enterprise. Selection of inappropriate accounting policy will lead to understatement or overstatement of performance and financial position. Therefore, accounting policy must be chosen with due care after considering its effect on the financial statement.
There is no universal set of accounting policies which can be applied to all business entities. While selecting any accounting policy, three principles of accounting should be kept in mind i.e.
- Substance over form and
Change in Accounting Policies
As per the accounting principle of consistency, an enterprise must consistently follow the accounting policies once chosen. A change in accounting policies should be made only in following cases-
- It is required by the statute
- It is required to comply with ASs.
- If the change in accounting policy will result in the better presentation of financial statement.
Whenever there is a change in accounting policy, the fact should be disclosed in the financial statements of the enterprise. The following example will make it clear how the changes in accounting policies are disclosed:
- XYX Ltd. revised its accounting policy relating to valuation of inventories to include the production overheads. The change has resulted in an increase in the value of inventory profit has been increased by $20 million.
- Tango Ltd. changed the method of depreciation from straight line method to written down value method, w.e.f. 1st January 2013. The depreciation has been recomputed from the date of acquisition of the asset at WDV method. Consequent to this change there has been an additional charge of depreciation of $350 thousand. Due to which the profit after tax has been lowered by $100.