The journal is the primary record book. All entries are made chronologically, that is when they occur. Transactions in the journal are documented using solely debit and credit rules.
For the purpose of recording, these transactions are classified into three groups.
- Personal transaction.
- Transaction related to assets and properties.
- Transaction related to expenses, losses, income, and gains.
Classification of Accounts
Accounts can be categorized into three categories for the purpose of double-entry bookkeeping viz.
- Personal Accounts
- Real Accounts
- Nominal Accounts
Let’s discuss these in detail:-
Personal accounts are those that are related to the individual, debtors, or creditors. The account of John’s Capital A/c., a credit customer or the account of Harry & Co., a provider of goods are both examples of this. The capital account is a type of financial account. In addition to being the account of the proprietor and the proprietor, it is also adjusted on the basis of profits and losses, among other things. Personal accounts are further divided into three categories:
- Natural personal account – it relates to the transactions of human beings like Harry, Clarke etc.
- Artificial Personal Account – for business purposes, business entities are treated areas having a separate entity. They are treated as a person in the eyes of the law for dealing with other persons. For example – Banks, Government, Companies etc.
- Representative Personal Account – these are not in the name of any person but these represent the personal accounts. For example outstanding liability for expenses or prepaid expenses paid in advance etc.
Real accounts are those that are linked to the assets of a company enterprise and are therefore more accurate. Liabilities, on the other hand, are not genuine accounts. The asset could be a tangible object such as a building or furniture, or it could be an intangible asset such as goodwill, among other things.
Permanent in nature, real accounts are carried from one accounting period to the next without being revalued. Land, deposits, investments, cash in hand, cash at the bank, and other types of real accounts are examples of real accounts.
Nominal accounts are associated with the element of revenues, expenses, gains, and losses. All nominal accounts are transient in nature and are closed at the conclusion of each transaction period. They are credited to the profit and loss account, and the profit and loss account’s balance is credited to the capital account. Salary, commission, rent paid, and advertisement charges are all examples of nominal accounts. Profit and loss accounts, which are used to calculate the gains and losses associated with any type of transaction, are also nominal accounts, such as Profit and Loss A/c.
Golden Rules of Accounting
Each of the above-mentioned accounts has two rules, one for debit and one for credit, for the purpose of documenting transactions. This is sometimes referred to as the accounting golden rule. Because all transactions must be documented using the double-entry method.
- The personal account is recorded using the rule
Debit the receiver
Credit the giver
- The real account is recorded using the rule
Debit what comes in
Credit what goes out
- The nominal account is recorded using the rule
Debit all expenses and losses
Credit all income and gains