Goodwill is valued based on the valuer’s assumptions. The methods used to value goodwill vary according to the facts of each case and are frequently based on industry conventions. The following are the methods of valuation of goodwill:-
- Average maintainable profits method
- Super profit method
- Capitalisation method
- Annuity method
- Hidden method
Average Maintainable Profit Method
Under this method, average profit means average profits of actual profits of the past three to five years depending upon the nature of business. The average of actual profits must be adjusted in the light of future events that may affect the future profits so this method is also known as “future maintainable profits”.
Under this method, we can calculate the value of goodwill by multiplying the average future maintainable profits by a certain number of years. The following formula used for calculating the value of goodwill:
Steps:- In the first step we have to calculate the average maintainable profits of the past few years are as follow-
Average maintainable profits= Total adjusted profits / No. Of year
Step:- Calculate the Value of goodwill by using the following formula:
Goodwill= Average maintainable profits x Number of years purchased.
To calculate the total adjusted profits, the following adjustments should be made in the profits.
- Any abnormal losses such as strikes, floods, and accidents etc. added back to the past profits.
- Any abnormal profits should be deducted from past profits.
- Interest, remuneration, commission etc should be adjusted.
- The past average profits should be calculated after deducting tax at current rates.
Super Profits Method
Super profit method of valuation of goodwill is one of the most popular methods of valuation of Goodwill. Under the super-profits method, the value of goodwill is on the basis of super-profits. Super profits are the profits that are earned above the normal profits i.e. excess of the actual profits over the normal profits.
For calculating the value of goodwill, the following formula should be followed:-
Super Profits = Actual Profits – Normal Profits
Normal Profits = Capital Invested X Normal rate of return/100
Goodwill = Super Profits x No. of years purchased
under this method, the value of goodwill is calculated in two ways such as-
- The Capitalisation of Average Profits Method
- Capitalisation Super Profits Method
a. The Capitalisation of Average Profit Method
In this method, goodwill is the surplus capitalised value of the average profit of the firm over its actual capital employed. The formula for calculating the value of goodwill under the capitalization of average profits method is as follow-
Goodwill = Capitalised Value of Average Profits – Capital Employed
Capitalised Value of Average Profits = Average Profits X (100 / Normal Rate of Return)
Capital Employed = Assets – Liabilities
b. The Capitalisation of Super Profits
For calculating the value of goodwill, the formula is such as follow-
|Goodwill = Super Profits X (100/ Normal Rate of Return)|
Example: The adjusted forecast maintainable profit is $40,000, capital employed is $200,000, the normal rate of return is 15%, and the capitalisation rate is 20%.
Here the value of goodwill shall be = [40,000 – (200,000 x 15%)] / 20%
Under this method, goodwill is calculated by taking the average of the super profit as the value of an annuity over a certain number of years. The present value of the above annuity is discounted at the given rate of interest (normal rate of return is the value of the goodwill. Following is the formula to calculate goodwill under the annuity method:
Goodwill = Super profits per annum x Relevant annuity value
A hidden goodwill method is used in such a case when no particular method of valuation of goodwill or information is provided in the question. The following steps are followed to calculate the value of hidden goodwill:-
Under the hidden goodwill method, the value of goodwill is calculated on the basis of capital contributed by the partners and their respective shares in the firm.
First of all, find out the total capital of the firm by using the formula:-
- Total capital= New partner capital * Reverse of new partner’s share
- Deduct from the total capital, the combined capital of all the partners
- Balance is the value of goodwill
In other words, Hidden Goodwill = Sundry Debtors – Outsiders Liabilities
Hope you understand how to calculated goodwill using various methods of valuation of goodwill.